Methodology

Developing Understanding Welsh Places (UWP) involved the following steps:

  1. Geography : defining the geography of places to be included in UWP website
  2. Demographic and Socio-Economic classification : setting the context of each place
  3. Population size classification : grouping places by resident settlement size
  4. Inter-relationship model : this explores how places inter-relate and to what extent they are independent, interdependent or dependent

Geography

The Understanding Welsh Places website defines a place as a settlement with 1,000 or more residents and identifies these settlements using the national recognised boundary definitions of Contiguous Built-up Areas (CBUAs). This approach identifies 307 places and these form the geographical base of the UWP website. 193 of these places have a resident population of 2,000 or more. These places have been selected for more detailed statistical representation on the UWP website as they contain a population large enough for robust statistical analysis.

CBUAs were defined for the Census of Population 2011 by the Welsh Government working with the Office of National Statistics (ONS), the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG). CBUAs are a combination of the ONS’ Built-up Areas and Built-up Area Subdivisions datasets. A CBUA is either a Built-up Area or, where a Built-up Area is large enough to be subdivided, the subdivisions of this Built-up Area. Full documentation of the Built-up Areas has been published by ONS (1). The decision to use CBUAs permit the use of a wide range of national government data, as smaller geographies (such as census output areas) can readily be assembled into CBUAs. This reflects the fact that UWP is about places, and not about local authorities or other geographies, and that consistency and comparability across Wales are key principles of the project.

On the UWP web interface the term 'places' is used rather than CBUA.

Demographic and Socio-Economic Classification

The 2011 Census of Population for Wales provides data on a range of demographic, social and economic indicators. Data for a series of variables were downloaded for small area geographies (Lower Layer Super Output Area (LSOA)) and linked to CBUAs using the best-fit methodology developed by the Welsh Government (2). These variables were used to derive a classification of the 193 places with a resident population of 2,000 or more using the statistical clustering procedure K-Means. This approach follows that used by Shepherd for England in 2009 and also the Understanding Scottish Places project (4). Some pre-analysis of variables was carried out to understand the dimensions of the data and to ensure that the variables would offer sufficient breadth and variety to produce a meaningful classification.

A detailed summary of the demographic and socio-economic variables used in the analysis and available for download from the website can be found in the Appendix at the end of this page.

Household Variables (% total Households)

Car ownership

  • No car
  • 1 Car
  • 2 or more cars

Tenure (% of all households)

  • Home owner
  • Rented local authority or social housing
  • Private rented

Social Conditions

  • Day-to-day activities limited by long-term health problem or disability (% of total population)
  • Unemployed
  • Reporting health as bad or very bad (poor health) (% of total population)
  • Overcrowded accommodation (% of total population)
  • No qualifications
  • Employment benefits (% of working age population)

Household composition (% of all households)

  • Single person
  • Married no children
  • Married with children
  • Cohabiting no children
  • Cohabiting with children
  • Lone parent with no children
  • Lone parent with children
  • Multi person students
  • Multi-person other (non-student)

Demographic Variables (% total residential population)

Age Distribution

  • 0-4 years
  • 5-9 years
  • 10-15 years
  • 16-24 years
  • 25-44 years
  • 45-64 years
  • 65-74 years
  • 75 years and over

Employment (% working age 16-74 in employment)

Hours worked

  • Part-time
  • Full-time
Industry
  • Agriculture, forestry and fishing
  • Mining and quarrying
  • Manufacturing
  • Construction
  • Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles
  • Transport and storage
  • Accommodation and food service activities
  • Information and communication
  • Financial and insurance activities
  • Real estate activities
  • Professional, scientific and technical activities
  • Administrative and support service activities
  • Public administration and defence, compulsory social security
  • Education
  • Human health and social work activities

Socio-economic variables

Education (% usual residential population aged 16 and over)

  • No qualifications
  • Level 1 - qualifications to up level 1 e.g. 1-4 O Levels/CSE/GCSEs any grades
  • Level 2 - qualifications to up level 2 e.g. 5 or more O Levels/CSE/GCSEs grades A*-C
  • Level 3 - qualifications to up level 3 e.g. 2+ A Levels
  • Level 4 and above - qualifications to up level 4 and above e.g. Degree (BA/BSc), Higher Degree (MA/MSc/PhD)

Occupation (% aged 16-74)

  • Student
  • Retired
  • Looking after the home or family
  • Inactive
  • Employee
  • Self employed
  • Unemployed

Social Grade (% usual residential population aged 16-64)

  • Social grade 1: Professional and managerial
  • Social Grade 2: White collar administrative, supervisory and clerical
  • Social Grade 3: Skilled manual
  • Social Grade 4: Semi-skilled, unskilled manual and unemployed

National Identity

  • Nationality British (% of residential population)
  • Nationality Welsh (% of residential population)
  • Speak Welsh (% of the residential population aged 3+)
  • Born in Wales (% of residential population)

Rural / Urban mix

  • Percentage of CBUA classified as rural
  • Percentage of CBUA classified as urban

Commuter Flows

The commuter map shows significant commuter flows between the place being viewed and other places. Particularly significant flows (at least 2% of the total population of the place being viewed, or at least 2000 people) are coloured, while smaller ones are shown in grey. The size of each flow is proportional to the thickness of the lines. Inflows and outflows are not distinguished, and are added together to calculate the total flow size. Counts of the inflows and outflows, for each flow line, can be seen by clicking on the corresponding flow line.

The commuter flows are calculated from the origin destination workplace tables published by the Office for National Statistics and based on responses to the 2011 census, aggregated and filtered into the CBUA geographies. Only the flows between pairs of places over 2000 people in Wales are shown, this excludes flows within a place, to/from rural areas, cross-border commutes (e.g. to England), home workers and those with no fixed place of work.

Classifying Places into Categories

The UWP website has classified the 193 places into seven groups (1 – 7) based on K-means analysis of the variables discussed earlier. K-means clustering is a statistical procedure which seeks to maximise differences between categories and minimise differences within categories. This means that places within the same category are as similar to one another as possible, whilst also being as dis-similar to places in other categories as possible. K-means clustering is based upon numerical distance between places, represented by scores on the input variables. Each category is given a value as the centre point, or centroid. The number of categories dictates the number of centroids and the distances are measured from these centroid values. The places are categorised by minimising the distance between the score of each place and the centroid value. The process is iterative, with places being moved between categories at each iteration until the most suitable solution is found. The process stops when no places can be moved between categories.

The clustering procedure involved repeating the process for different numbers of potential categories. A judgement was made between too much detail (too many categories) and too much generality (too few categories) using a combination of statistical diagnostic tests on the categories and their legibility as a coherent group of places. This generated three different potential classifications based on putting places into five, six or seven categories. The seven-category classification was selected after consultation with participants at a stakeholder workshop and statistical analysis of the data.

Population settlement size

It is logical to expect that settlement size, in terms of resident population, will impact on a place’s function and service provision. Therefore, the categories mentioned above were disaggregated in terms of the size of the places. The table shows the size categories used, which provide compatibility with the population settlement size used in the CBUA methodology.

Population

Number of Places

Less than 2,000

0

2,000 - 9,999

134

10,000 - 24,999

40

25,000 – 99,999

16

100,000 and over

3

Combining the seven groups (1 - 7) with the four population settlement size categories resulted in 18 different groupings (i.e. there were 10 combinations of groups and population settlement size which contained no places).

Number of Places
Category Population: 2,000 – 9,999 Population: 10,000 – 24,999 Population: 25,000 – 99,999 Population: 100,000 and over
1 23 9 2 0
2 28 9 3 0
3 16 13 10 3
4 18 1 0 0
5 27 4 1 0
6 22 2 0 0
7 0 2 0 0

Inter-Relationship Model

The next level of Understanding Welsh Places was to apply an inter-relationship model. The inter-relationship model is framed by the Centre for Local Economic Strategies’ (CLES) research over the last ten years about the resilience of place. The CLES resilience model explores the assets and relationships which places have between the public, commercial, and social sectors and how these shape the functioning of their economies. The inter-relationship model explores these connections further by identifying the extent to which places are reliant or otherwise upon neighbouring places for these assets and relationships.

In the Understanding Welsh Places project, we have developed a way of exploring the inter-relationships between places using a set of indicators. These indicators enable us to define the relative independence, interdependence, and dependence of the 193 places in Wales with a population of over 2,000 people. We have called this our inter-relationship model.

An independent place will have a high number of public; commercial; and social economy assets in relation to its population. This will include GP surgeries and charities. It will have a diverse sector base in terms of jobs. Residents will travel short distances to work and the place will attract people from neighbouring places to access its assets.

A dependent place will have a low number of public; commercial; and social economy assets in relation to its population. It will be reliant on singular sectors in terms of jobs. Residents will travel longer distances to work and the place will be reliant on neighbouring places for assets and jobs.

An interdependent place will sit somewhere between independent and dependent places. For some public, commercial and social economy assets it may have a high number in relation to its population and for others a low number. A balance of people will work in the place with others reliant on neighbouring places.

Approach

Eleven indicators are used which explore the inter-relationships within and between places in Wales. These indicators were chosen on the basis of data being available nationally. The indicators portray three things:

  • There are indicators which detail the number of certain assets in the place when compared to its resident or working age population;
  • There are indicators which detail the diversity of the business and employment base in the place;
  • There are indicators which detail the distance people resident in the place travel to work.

To populate each indicator, we have gathered data from a range of sources for each of the193 places in Wales with a population of over 2,000 people. The 11 indicators and associated data sources are as follows:

  • Number of registered charities - this is the number of charities based in the place in relation to the resident population. Data has been gathered from the Charity Commission;
  • Number of GP’s and Dentists - this is the number of GP’s and Dentists in the place in relation to the resident population. Data on GPs has been gathered from the Welsh Government’s General Medical Practitioners dataset, whereas data on dentists was obtained from NHS England;
  • Number of hospitals - this is the number of hospitals in the place in relation to the resident population. Data has been gathered from NHS Wales;
  • Number of children in primary schools - this is the number of children in primary schools based in the place in relation to its resident population. Data has been gathered from the Welsh Government;
  • Number of children in secondary schools - this is the number of children in secondary schools based in the place in relation to its resident population. Data has been gathered from the Welsh Government;
  • Number of jobs - this is the number of jobs in the place in relation to its working age population (16-64). Data has been gathered from the Business Register and Employment Survey;
  • Diversity of jobs - this is number of jobs in particular sectors in the place and the extent to which it is diverse or reliant in sector terms. Data has been gathered from the Business Register and Employment Survey;
  • Public sector jobs - this is the number of jobs in the place in the public sector in relation to all jobs. Both low and high numbers of jobs are a sign of reliance on either the public sector or other sectors. Data has been gathered from the Business Register and Employment Survey;
  • Number of shops - this is the number of shops in the place in relation to its resident population. Data has been gathered from Ordnance Survey’s Points of Interest dataset;
  • Distance travelled to work - this is the distance travelled by the working age residents of the place to reach their job. Data has been gathered from the 2011 Census;
  • Diversity of retail offer - this is the percentage of retail types in the place in relation to 37 different retail types. The higher the percentage the greater diversity of retail types. Data has been gathered from the Business Register and Employment Survey.

The data has then been analysed utilising the appropriate one of three portrayals outlined earlier (number of assets; diversity of business and employment base; and distance travelled). For each indicator, places have then been split into sevenths depending on their position across the 193 places and given an appropriate score. Places in the top seventh on each indicator (a high number of shops per resident, for example) have scored 6 and places in the bottom seventh (a low number of shops per resident, for example) have scored -6 with increments of 4, 2, 0, -2, and -4 in between.

Once we have analysed each indicator for each place we have then added up the individual scores to derive a total for the place. The highest aggregated total score is 50 with the lowest -46. We have then taken the difference (96) between highest and lowest and split the places into seven equal increments. For example, places scoring between 36 and 50 are in the top increment. They have been subsequently been provided with the following assessments:

  • First increment - Independent;
  • Second increment - Independent to Interdependent;
  • Third increment - Interdependent to Independent;
  • Fourth increment - Interdependent;
  • Fifth increment - Interdependent to Dependent;
  • Sixth increment - Dependent to Interdependent;
  • Seventh increment - Dependent

This gives each place their overarching score and assessment using our inter-relationship model.

Independent places have a high number of assets in relation to their population; a strong diversity of jobs; and residents travel shorter distances to travel to work. These places will attract people from neighbouring places to access their assets and jobs.

Independent to Interdependent places have a good number of assets in relation to their population. These places have a good diversity of jobs; and residents on the whole travel shorter distances to travel to work. These places attract people from neighbouring places to access some of their assets and jobs.

Interdependent to Independent places have a good number of assets in relation to their population. They have some diversity of jobs; and residents largely travel shorter distances to work, although some travel longer distances. These places attract people from neighbouring places to access some of their assets and jobs.

Interdependent places have a medium number of assets in relation to their population; average diversity of jobs; and residents travel a mix of short and long distances to travel to work. These places are attractors of people from neighbouring places who come to access some assets and jobs but they are also reliant on neighbouring places for other assets and jobs.

Interdependent to Dependent places have a low number of assets in relation to their population. They have some diversity of jobs; and residents travel largely longer distances to work, although some travel shorter distances. They are reliant on neighbouring places for some assets and jobs.

Dependent to Interdependent places have a low number of assets in relation to their population. They have a poor diversity of jobs; and residents on the whole travel longer distances to work. They are reliant on neighbouring places for some assets and jobs.

Dependent places have a low number of assets in relation to their population; a reliance on one sector for jobs; and residents travel longer distances to work. They are reliant on neighbouring places for assets and jobs.

Footnotes

Appendix

Demographic and Socio-Economic Classification Variables – a detailed description with data sources

Age distribution

Name

Description

Source

0 to 4 years

Percentage of usual resident population aged 0-4 (MYE 2017)

ONS mid-year population estimates for Output Areas (2017)

5 to 9 years

Percentage of usual resident population aged 5-9 (MYE 2017)

ONS mid-year population estimates for Output Areas (2017)

10 to 15 years

Percentage of usual resident population aged 10-15 (MYE 2017)

ONS mid-year population estimates for Output Areas (2017)

16 to 24 years

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-24 (MYE 2017)

ONS mid-year population estimates for Output Areas (2017)

25 to 44 years

Percentage of usual resident population aged 25-44 (MYE 2017)

ONS mid-year population estimates for Output Areas (2017)

45 to 64 years

Percentage of usual resident population aged 45-64 (MYE 2017)

ONS mid-year population estimates for Output Areas (2017)

65 to 74 years

Percentage of usual resident population aged 65-74 (MYE 2017)

ONS mid-year population estimates for Output Areas (2017)

75 years and over

Percentage of usual resident population aged over 75 (MYE 2017)

ONS mid-year population estimates for Output Areas (2017)

Household composition

Name

Description

Source

Single

Percentage of single person households

Census 2011 (KS105EW)

Married with no children

Percentage of households married with no children

Census 2011 (KS105EW)

Married with children

Percentage of households married with children (including dependent and non-dependent children)

Census 2011 (KS105EW)

Co-habiting with no children

Percentage of households co-habiting with no children

Census 2011 (KS105EW)

Cohabiting with children

Percentage of households co-habiting with children (including dependent and non-dependent children)

Census 2011 (KS105EW)

Lone parent with no dependent children

Percentage of lone parent households with no dependent children

Census 2011 (KS105EW)

Lone parent with dependent children

Percentage of lone parent households with dependent children

Census 2011 (KS105EW)

Student households

Percentage of student households (multiple occupation)

Census 2011 (KS105EW)

Multiple occupation households

Percentage of other multiple occupation households, excluding students.

Census 2011 (KS105EW)

conomic activity

Name

Description

Source

Students

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are students (including both economically active and inactive)

Census 2011 (KS601EW)

Retired

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are retired people (economically inactive)

Census 2011 (KS601EW)

Looking after home/family

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are looking after the home or family (economically inactive)

Census 2011 (KS601EW)

Economically inactive

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are economically inactive(including Retired, Student and Homemaker)

Census 2011 (KS601EW)

Employees

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employees (part-time and full-time) (economically active)

Census 2011 (KS601EW)

Self-employed

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are self-employed (economically active)

Census 2011 (KS601EW)

Unemployed

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are unemployed (economically active)

Census 2011 (KS601EW)

Industry of employment

Name

Description

Source

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in agriculture, forestry and fishing.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Mining and quarrying

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in mining and quarrying.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Manufacturing

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in manufacturing.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Construction

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in construction.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motor cycles

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motor cycles.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Transport and storage

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in transport and storage.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Accommodation and food service activities

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in accommodation and food service activities.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Information and communication

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in information and communication.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Financial and insurance activities

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in financial and insurance activities.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Real estate activities

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in real estate activities.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Professional, scientific and technical activities

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in professional, scientific and technical activities.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Administrative and support service activities

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in administrative and support service activities.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Public administration and defence; compulsory social security

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in public administration and defence; compulsory social security.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Education

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in education.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Human health and social work activities

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16-74 who are employed in human health and social work activities.

Census 2011 (KS605EW)

Qualifications

Name

Description

Source

None

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16+ with no academic or professional qualifications.

Census 2011 (QS501EW)

Level 1

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16+  with qualifications up to level 1 (1-4 O Levels/CSE/GCSEs (any grades), Entry Level, Foundation Diploma, NVQ level 1, Foundation GNVQ, Basic/Essential Skills (England & Wales & Northern Ireland)).

Census 2011 (QS501EW)

Level 2

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16+  with qualifications up to level 2(5+ O Level (Passes)/CSEs (Grade 1)/GCSEs (Grades A*-C), School Certificate, 1 A Level/ 2-3 AS Levels/VCEs, Intermediate/Higher Diploma, Welsh Baccalaureate Intermediate Diploma, NVQ level 2, Intermediate GNVQ, City and Guilds Craft, BTEC First/General Diploma, RSA Diploma (England & Wales & Northern Ireland)).

Census 2011 (QS501EW)

Level 3

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16+  with qualifications to up level 3(2+ A Levels/VCEs, 4+ AS Levels, Higher School Certificate, Progression/Advanced Diploma, Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma, NVQ Level 3; Advanced GNVQ, City and Guilds Advanced Craft, ONC, OND, BTEC National, RSA Advanced Diploma (England & Wales & Northern Ireland)).

Census 2011 (QS501EW)

Level 4+

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16+ with qualifications up to level 4 and above (Degree (for example BA, BSc), Higher Degree (for example MA, PhD, PGCE), NVQ Level 45, HNC, HND, RSA Higher Diploma, BTEC Higher level, Foundation degree (NI), Professional qualifications (for example teaching, nursing, accountancy) (England & Wales & Northern Ireland)).

Census 2011 (QS501EW)

Tenure

Name

Description

Source

Homeowner

Percentage of households who own their home (including owned outright, owned with a mortgage and shared ownership).

Census 2011 (KS402EW)

Rented (social)

Percentage of households who are in the social rented sector

Census 2011 (KS402EW)

Rented (private)

Percentage of households who are in the private rented sector

Census 2011 (KS402EW)

Social Condition

Name

Description

Source

Social grade: level 1

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16 to 64 assigned the approximated social grade AB (assigned to all individuals in a household where the household reference person is employed in higher and intermediate managerial/administrative/professional occupations).

Census 2011 (QS611EW)

Social grade: level 2

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16 to 64 assigned the approximated social grade C1 (assigned to all individuals in a household where the household reference person is employed in supervisory, clerical and junior managerial/administrative/professional occupations.

Census 2011 (QS611EW)

Social grade: level 3

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16 to 64 assigned the approximated social grade C2 (assigned to all individuals in a household where the household reference person is employed in skilled manual occupations.

Census 2011 (QS611EW)

Social grade: level 4

Percentage of usual resident population aged 16 to 64 assigned the approximated social grade DE (assigned to all individuals in a household where the household reference person is employed in semi-skilled and unskilled manual occupations; unemployed and lowest grade occupations

).

Census 2011 (QS611EW)

Overcrowded accommodation

Percentage of all usual residents in households living in overcrowded accommodation (persons per room >1).

Census 2011 (QS410EW)

Claiming employment benefits

Percentage of the working age population claiming employment related benefits (Incapacity Benefit, Job Seekers Allowance (JSA), Employment and Support Allowance (ESA). Those claiming multiple benefits are only counted once).

WIMD Employment Domain (Welsh Government, 2017)

Poor health

Percentage of usual resident population who self-report their health as either bad or very bad.

Census 2011

(QS302EW)

Limiting long-term illness

Percentage of usual resident population whose day-to-day activities are limited by a long-term health problem or disability.

Census 2011 (QS303EW)

Rurality Indicators

Name

Description

Source

Car availability: no cars or vans

Percentage Households with no car or van.

Census 2011 (KS404EW)

Car availability: 1 car or van.

Percentage Households with 1 car or van.

Census 2011 (KS404EW)

Car availability: 2 or more cars or vans

Percentage Households with 2 or more cars or vans.

Census 2011 (KS404EW)

Urban output areas

Percentage of Output Areas (OAs) in the CBUA classed as Urban (C1 or C2).

ONS Rural Urban Classification (2011)

Rural output areas

Percentage of Output Areas (OAs) in the CBUA classed as Rural (D1, D2, E1, E2, F1 or F2).

ONS Rural Urban Classification (2011).

National Identity

Name

Description

Source

National identity: Welsh

Percentage of usual resident population who identify as Welsh

Census 2011 (KS202EW)

National identity: British

Percentage of usual resident population who identify as British

Census 2011 (KS202EW)

Born in Wales

Percentage of usual resident population who were born in Wales.

Census 2011 (KS204EW)

Speak welsh

Percentage of the usual resident population aged 3+ who speak Welsh

Census 2011 (KS207WA)

Ethnic Group

Name

Description

Source

Ethnic Group: White

Percentage of usual resident population who’s own perceived ethnic group and cultural background is White

Census 2011 (KS201EW)

Ethnic Group: Mixed and Multiple Ethnic Groups

Percentage of usual resident population who’s own perceived ethnic group and cultural background is mixed or belongs to multiple ethnic groups

Census 2011 (KS201EW)

Ethnic Group: Asian and Asian British

Percentage of usual resident population who’s own perceived ethnic group and cultural background is Asian or Asian British

Census 2011 (KS201EW)

Ethnic Group: Black, African, Caribbean and Black British

Percentage of usual resident population who’s own perceived ethnic group and cultural background is Black, African, Caribbean or Black British

Census 2011 (KS201EW)

Ethnic Group: Other Ethnic Group

Percentage of usual resident population who’s own perceived ethnic group and cultural background belongs to other ethnic groups

Census 2011 (KS201EW)

Category Descriptions

Category 1

This is a small town or neighbourhood in category 1. These towns or neighbourhoods tend to have higher proportions of married households and fewer single occupancy households than Wales as a whole. They tend to have slightly higher proportions of home ownership and lower levels of social rented homes. There tends to be more people in work and in full-time employment than the Welsh average and people tend to be more qualified with a larger proportion of people with degrees and fewer people with no qualifications. More people are in professional and managerial positions than in other places in Wales and multiple car ownership is higher. Proportionally, slightly more people in these places were born in Wales and more people identify as having Welsh nationality. The proportion of Welsh speaking residents also tends to be slightly higher.

This is a medium-sized town in category 1. These towns tend to have higher proportions of married households and fewer single occupancy households than Wales as a whole. They tend to have slightly higher proportions of social rented homes. There tends to be more people in work and in full-time employment than the Welsh average. There are more people semi-skilled occupations than in other places in Wales and higher proportions of people working in manufacturing, retail and wholesale. Proportionally, slightly fewer people in these places were born in Wales and fewer people identify as having Welsh nationality. The proportion of Welsh speaking residents also tends to be slightly lower.

This is a large town in category 1. These towns tend to have higher proportions of young working age people (25-44 years old), and single people living in multi-occupancy households and private rented homes than Wales as a whole. There tends to be more people in work and in full-time employment than the Welsh average and people tend to be more qualified with a larger proportion of people with degrees and fewer people with no qualifications. More people are in professional and managerial positions than in other places in Wales and multiple car ownership is higher. Proportionally, slightly more people in these places were born in Wales and identify as having Welsh nationality, although the proportion of Welsh speaking residents tends to be slightly lower.

Category 2

This is a small town or neighbourhood in category 2. These towns or neighbourhoods tend to have higher proportions of lone parent households than in Wales. They tend to have slightly lower proportions of home ownership and higher levels of social rented homes. There tends to be fewer people in work and in full-time employment than the Welsh average with a higher proportion of people having few qualifications. More people tend to be employed in semi-skilled and unskilled occupations with a higher proportion of people working in the manufacturing sectors than in other places in Wales. Car ownership is lower than in other places in Wales. Proportionally, more people in these places were born in Wales and people tend to identify as having Welsh nationality although the proportion of Welsh speaking residents also tends to be low.

This is a medium-sized town in category 2. These towns tend to have slightly higher proportions of home ownership and lower levels of social rented homes. There tends to be fewer people in work and in full-time employment than the Welsh average. More people tend to be employed in semi-skilled and unskilled occupations with a higher proportion of people working in the manufacturing sectors than in other places in Wales. Car ownership is lower than in other places in Wales. Proportionally, more people in these places were born in Wales and people tend to identify as having Welsh nationality although the proportion of Welsh speaking residents also tends to be low.

This is a large town in category 2. These towns tend to have slightly lower levels of social renting than the Welsh average. There is a lower proportion of well qualified people with more people having no qualifications. Fewer people tend to be employed in professional and managerial occupations with a higher proportion employed in manufacturing. Proportionally, more people in these places were born in Wales and people tend to identify as having Welsh nationality although the proportion of Welsh speaking residents also tends to be low.

Category 3

This is a small town or neighbourhood in category 3. These towns and neighbourhoods tend to have higher proportions of people aged 25-44 years old and lower numbers of retired people than in other places in Wales. There tends to be slightly higher proportions of home ownership and higher levels of social rented homes. More people are in work and in full-time employment than the Welsh average and multiple car ownership is very high. Proportionally they have higher proportions of Welsh speakers although the proportions of people born in Wales or identifying as having Welsh nationality is around average for Wales.

This is a medium-sized town in category 3. These towns tend to have higher proportions of people aged 25-44 years old and lower numbers of retired people than in other places in Wales. There tends to be slightly higher proportions of home ownership and higher levels of social rented homes. More people are in work and in full-time employment than the Welsh average and multiple car ownership is very high. Proportionally they have higher proportions of Welsh speakers, people born in Wales and people identifying as having Welsh nationality than the average for Wales.

This is a large town in category 3. These towns tend to have higher proportions of people aged 25-44 years old and lower numbers of retired people than in other places in Wales. There tends to be slightly higher proportions of home ownership and higher levels of social rented homes. More people are in work and in full-time employment than the Welsh average and multiple car ownership is very high. Proportionally they have higher proportions of people born in Wales and people identifying as having Welsh nationality than the average for Wales, but lower proportions of people who speak Welsh.

This is a city in category 3. These cities have a higher than average proportions of single people, people living in multiple occupancy households and those living in private rented accommodation. There are lower than average proportions of people who are married. There are higher than average proportions of people with degree- level qualifications and employed in professional and managerial occupations. Fewer people are employed in manufacturing, with marginally higher proportions of people working in public sector and service jobs, such as accommodation, ICT, finance and education. There are higher proportions of people classified as economically inactive, although this may be explained by higher than average proportions of students. They have a higher proportion of the population identifying as being from a Black, Asian and minority ethnic group than in most of Wales. The proportion of people identifying as having Welsh nationality is lower than in Wales as a whole, and there are lower levels of Welsh speaking.

Category 4

This is a small town or neighbourhood in category 4. These towns tend to have higher proportions of people aged over 45 years old and fewer people aged between 16 and 44 years old than in Wales as a whole. There tends to be a higher proportion of retired people, married people and fewer single households. Home ownership is notably higher than in many parts of Wales and the social rented sector is much lower. There tends to be a higher proportion of people who are self-employed or work in professional and managerial positions and the population tends to be more highly qualified, and more people have degrees, than elsewhere. The places tend more to be in rural locations and multiple car ownership is higher than average. More people living here were born outside of Wales than average and fewer people identify as having Welsh nationality or speak Welsh.

This is a medium-sized town in category 4. These towns tend to have higher proportions of people aged over 65 years old and fewer people aged between 16 and 44 years old than in Wales as a whole. There tends to be a higher proportion of retired people and single person households. Private renting is higher than the Welsh average. There tends to be a lower proportion of people who work in professional and managerial positions and the population tends to be less qualified. There tends to be more people with poor health and the proportion of households without access to a car is higher than average. More people living here were born in Wales, identify as having Welsh nationality than average, but there are fewer Welsh speakers.

Category 5

This is a small town in category 5. These towns tend have higher proportions of people aged over 65 years old and fewer people aged between 16 and 44 years old than in Wales as a whole. There tends to be a higher proportion of retired people and single people and fewer married households with children. There tends to be a higher proportion of people who are self-employed or work part-time, especially in accommodation, food and services industries. The places tend more to be in rural locations although multiple car ownership is lower than average. More people living here were born outside of Wales than average and fewer people identify as having Welsh nationality, although the proportion of Welsh speaking residents is relatively high.

This is a medium-sized town in category 5. These towns tend to have higher proportions of people aged over 65 years old and fewer people aged between 16 and 44 years old than in Wales as a whole. There tends to be a higher proportion of retired people and single people and fewer married households with children. There tends to be a higher proportion of people who work in the accommodation, food and services industries. The places tend more to be in rural locations. More people living here were born outside of Wales than average and fewer people identify as having Welsh nationality, although the proportion of Welsh speaking residents is relatively high.

This is a large town in category 5. These towns tend have higher proportions of people aged over 65 years old and fewer people aged between 16 and 44 years old than in Wales as a whole. There tends to be a higher proportion of retired people and single people and fewer married households with children. There tends to be a higher proportion of people who work in service and public sector employment and are in professional and managerial occupations and more people than average have degrees. More people living here were born outside of Wales than average and fewer people identify as having Welsh nationality or speak Welsh.

Category 6

This is a small town or neighbourhood in category 6. These towns or neighbourhoods tend to be in rural locations and overall reflect the average demographic and socio-economic characteristics of many places in Wales, although there tends to be slightly higher incidence of people with ill health, economic inactivity and part-time employment. One key characteristic is that these places have proportionally more people who were born in Wales, identify as having Welsh nationality, and speak Welsh, than the average for Wales.

This is a medium-sized town in category 6. These towns tend to be in rural locations and overall reflect the average demographic and socio-economic characteristics of many places in Wales, although there tends to be slightly higher incidence of people with ill health. One key characteristic is that these places have proportionally more people who were born in Wales, identify as having Welsh nationality, and speak Welsh, than the average for Wales.

Category 7

This is a medium-sized town in category 7. Its characteristics reflect the presence of a university as a major employer and the relatively large student population. The towns have substantially higher than average people aged 16-24 years old, student and single person households, private rented households and fewer households in owner-occupation. More people work in part-time employment, and in the accommodation, food and service occupations and in education and many more people have A-levels and degrees than average. There are a higher proportion of households with no access to a car. They have a higher proportion of the population identifying as being from a Black, Asian and minority ethnic group than in most of Wales. Fewer people were born in Wales and the proportion identifying as having Welsh nationality is low although Welsh speaking is above average for Wales.